China is a country with many teas, and the history of tea cultivation and drinking is very long. In China, tea is mainly divided into six categories: green tea, black tea, oolong tea, white tea, yellow tea, dark tea. The production methods of the major teas are gradually created by tea producers in the actual production, and they are not formed at the same time.
The following will briefly introduce some of the representative teas:
1、 Green tea
The basic process of green tea is fresh leaf spreading, greening, simmering, and drying. Greening is the key process in the processing of green tea. Its main purpose is to use high temperature to passivate the activity of polyphenol oxidase to prevent the oxidation of tea polyphenols, so as to achieve the quality characteristics of green tea "clear green leaves", so it is called green tea. Such as:
West Lake Longjing: The traditional hand-made dragon well is flat, straight, even and smooth. The aroma is high and cool, and the taste is sweet and refreshing. The place where the fine tea is produced is in several natural villages such as Longjing, Wengjiashan and Meijiawu in the West Lake Scenic Area of Hangzhou. The quality of the tea in Shifeng Mountain is particularly excellent, and the color is yellow in the green color, commonly known as “brown beige”; the shape of the Meiwu Longjing is flat and smooth, and the color is green.
Anji White Tea: Anji White Tea is produced in Anji County, Zhejiang Province. It has unique varieties. When fresh leaves are young, the chlorophyll content is extremely low. It has the characteristics of “staged whitening”, combined with high amino acid content and special quality.
Dongting Biluochun: It has the quality characteristics of “slim and snail, long-lasting fragrance, delicious taste and sweet aftertaste”. The place of production is in Dongting Mountain, Taihu Lake, Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province.
The black tea process has withering, simmering, cutting, fermenting, drying, etc., using the enzymes in the fresh leaves to oxidize the tea polyphenols, transforming into theaflavins and thearubigins, showing the quality characteristics of "red soup red leaves". Dry tea is not only buds, but also black and black. The fermentation is the key process of black tea.
Tuen Mun Black Tea: It has a beautiful appearance and a sharp seedling, and its color is slightly grayish; it has a similar aroma of honey, and is known as “Tuen Mun Fragrance” in the international market. The soup is red and bright, and the taste is sweet and sweet. The leaves are red and bright. Produced in Tuen Mun, Anhui Province and its adjacent counties.
Dianhong: The shape is strong and smooth, the color is black and sturdy; the inner scent is high-sweet, with the unique floral scent of the big leaf, the soup color is red with gold ring, the taste is strong, and the leaf bottom is thick. Produced in Yunnan Fengqing, Linyi, Shuangjiang and other places.
Jin Junmei: The appearance is fine, slightly curly, the color of the tea is golden, the taste is sweet, fresh, and the aroma is fragrant. It is a popular tea in the market in recent years. The place of production is in Tongmuguan, Wuyishan City, Fujian Province.
Oolong tea is a semi-fermented tea produced through the processes of drying, shaking, and other processes such as greening, wrapping. Shaking and greening are the unique techniques of oolong tea. Oolong tea is fermented between black tea and green tea. Fujian, Guangdong and Taiwan are all areas of oolong tea. They are rich in quality and have a variety of floral and fruity flavors. The oolong tea produced in Weinan and Taiwan is less fermented and baked, and the oolong tea produced in northern Fujian and Guangdong is more fermented and baked. Such as:
Wuyi Rock Tea: The shape is twisted and sturdy, the color is brown and lustrous, the aroma is rich, the taste is strong and mellow, the rock rhyme is obvious, the bottom of the leaf is soft, uniform, and the red edge is bright. The place of production is in Wuyi Mountain, Fujian Province. The quality of the tea in the Zhengyan production area is particularly excellent, with a distinct regional fragrance, called “Yu Yun”. Common varieties include Dahongpao, Narcissus, Cinnamon, Iron Lohan, etc. Different varieties have their own characteristics.
Tieguanyin: The body is heavy like iron, which is the best in Weinan Oolong tea. The shape of the rope is round, mostly spiral, color sand green and green, green belly green, commonly known as "banana color"; the internal aroma is high and rich, with natural orchid fragrance, tastes mellow and sweet. Tieguanyin has a distinct variety of flavors, called "phonology."
It is a slightly fermented tea, and withering is a key process for the quality of white tea. The white tea method is generally not fried, the tea leaves are intact, the shape is natural, the white is not off, the fragrance is fresh, the soup is light, the taste is sweet, and the long-lasting is resistant to foam. Such as
White silver needle: shape bud needle fat, full of white, bright silver. The inner aroma is fresh, the taste is fresh and sweet, and the soup is clear and light apricot. The place of origin is in Fuding, Zhenghe and other places in Fujian.
After the greening process, the yellowing process is added, and the tea is stuffed and yellowed by the action of moist heat, which has the characteristics of "yellow soup yellow leaves" and the degree of fermentation is also light. Such as:
Junshan Silver Needle: The shape of the bud head is fat and straight, uniform, full of velvet hair, golden color and bright, called "golden jade"; the internal aroma is fresh, the soup color is light yellow, and the taste is sweet and refreshing. Produced in Junshan Junshan, Hunan Province.
The basic process is to smash, pile and dry. In the manufacturing process, the fermentation time is often accumulated, so the leaf color is black or dark brown, so it is called dark tea. The glutinous heap is a unique process of black tea, and it is also a key process for the formation of black hair, scent and taste. The production areas of black tea are very extensive, including Hunan, Hubei, Guangxi, Yunnan, Sichuan and Yunnan. Such as:
Seven sub-cakes: divided into raw tea and cooked tea, flat disc shape, shape is well-proportioned, moderately tight, of which seven pieces of cake each net weight 357g, each seven is a tube, each tube weighs 2500g. Pu'er tea (cooked tea) is pressed against the shape of the tea. The color of the endogenous soup is red and bright, and the aroma is unique and fragrant. The taste is mellow and sweet, and the bottom of the leaves is reddish brown.
In addition to the above six major teas, in the traditional tea production in China, there is also reprocessed tea represented by flower tea. The scented tea is made from green tea as a tea slab, with flowers that can be sprinkled as raw materials, and made from a tanning process.
Different tea varieties, different production processes, sensory flavors have their own characteristics. The specific tea products are affected by tea tree varieties, planting environment, tenderness, processing technology, storage conditions and other factors, and the flavor changes more. Therefore, while pursuing good tea, you must believe in your own sensory judgments and choose what you like.