Agriculture is the foundation of the national economy. From primitive slash and burn, self-sufficient individual agriculture to modern agriculture, human society has made great achievements in agricultural production through scientific and technological progress and intensive use of land, but it is based on a large amount of consumption of resources and energy. Modern agriculture has also brought some serious drawbacks, which has led to a series of global characteristics of ecological environment problems. The reasons for these problems are varied. Among them, the direction of agriculture becomes the focus of thinking. More and more people realize that the goal of agriculture is not only to increase production, but also to improve product quality and ensure food safety. Not only to improve the yield of land, to obtain economic benefits, but also to play a variety of agricultural ecosystem services to promote sustainable rural development.
1. Concept of Ecological Agriculture
Ecological agriculture is to protect the agricultural ecological environment as the premise, follow the principles of ecology and ecological economics as the basic principle, make full use of modern science and technology and modern management means, the formation of intensive agricultural development model, based on the effective experience of modern agriculture. Establish a future agricultural form with high social, economic and ecological benefits.
2. The main problems facing the development of ecological agriculture in China
China has made great achievements in studying ecological agriculture theory system, ecological agriculture exploration and supporting policy construction. However, there are still some problems that hinder the rapid development of eco-agriculture . 1) The theoretical system of ecological agriculture with Chinese characteristics is incomplete. With the support of multi-disciplinary theory, eco-agriculture is a kind of agriculture. It involves not only large-scale agronomy, ecology, environmental science, but also economics, marketing and so on. It is a typical cross-disciplinary theory support system. From a single discipline, China has established a set of mature discipline system, research work more deeply. However, how to transcend the single subject theory and realize the organic integration of interdisciplinary theory still faces difficulties. Understanding the technical situation is more serious, resulting in some ecological agricultural technology research and development can only meet the theoretical requirements of a single subject, difficult to play a comprehensive advantage, but has not yet formed a theoretical system of ecological agriculture. At the same time, the development of China's eco-agriculture is affected by the scale of land management, the characteristics of agricultural production and management, and the degree of marketization. It is imperative to establish the theoretical system of ecological agriculture development with Chinese characteristics, which should accord with China's national conditions and the stage of economic and social development. We should not only pay attention to the benefits of ecological environment, but also neglect economic benefits. Seeking the comprehensive balance of ecological, economic and social benefits, constructing the theory system of ecological agriculture support, and constructing the ecological agriculture model suitable for China's large scale popularization. 2) The development of eco-agriculture technology system is lagging behind. Eco-agriculture system is a complex system. This is not a simple technique, or it can be supported by several separate technologies. It requires the organization of a variety of single and complex technologies to form a technical system. However, the construction of this technology system not only through the farmers to some new agricultural production model test, but also does not have enough basic theory to prepare a new model of the experiment to summarize and put forward the theoretical level. At present, the research on China's eco-agriculture technology is more follow-up strategy, re-examining the western existing technology, and trying to promote in China, the results are generally poor. It leads directly to the lack of low cost technology and the lack of marketing technology in the research and development of eco-agricultural technology. The important way to combat inefficient agriculture is to develop key technologies that can reduce the cost of agricultural production and reduce environmental pollution. These technologies are important technical support for the development of ecological agriculture. Obviously, the technical results with this characteristic are relatively scarce, especially those products which are really used in production, and the technical system of the development of eco-agriculture lags behind. 3) The ecological agriculture support policy system needs to be improved. Policy support is an important motive force for the development of eco-agriculture. Ecological agriculture is still a new thing for farmers. In the early stage of development, there was no policy guidance and support from the government and it was difficult to carry out in a short time. China attaches great importance to the development of eco-agriculture by the central government to local governments, but there are few supporting policies for the development of eco-agriculture. So far, the domestic agricultural support policy mainly involves agricultural production system, agricultural products and agricultural product price reform, agricultural products management and circulation reform, tax and fee reform, peasant burden reduction, farmers’ income, expand agriculture, rural investment and so on. The concept of "increasing production and increasing income". The lack of supportive policies to develop a basic environment for ecological agriculture requires the urgent delineation of ecological and agricultural development areas to eliminate anthropogenic environmental pollution. The second is the lack of support policy to develop ecological agriculture industry. The key is to strengthen the production, marketing and response to natural risk support measures. Thirdly, we should strengthen the support policy for the development of eco-agricultural production units. Ecological agriculture is not only difficult to understand in theory, but also difficult to master in production technology. In order to promote eco-agriculture, we must increase the technical training of practitioners, grasp the production skills and marketing ability of ecological agriculture, improve economic efficiency, and gradually attract farmers to engage in ecological agriculture.
3. Ecological Agriculture Development Technology
1) Eco-agriculture will become a new direction for the future development of modern agriculture. Facing the high investment and low efficiency of agricultural development in China, the problem of agricultural surface source pollution has been caused seriously. Since the second half of 2013, the central and local governments have conducted in-depth research on agricultural ecological problems and sustainable agricultural development models. November 26, 2013, General Secretary Xi Jinping to Heze city, Shandong province pointed out, to speed up the establishment of high-yielding, high-quality, efficient requirements of the technical system, ecological and safe agriculture. The Central Rural Working Conference, held in Beijing from December 23 to December 24, 2013, pointed out that in order to ensure the national food security and farmers' income, we must strive to develop the new road of modern agriculture with Chinese characteristics, with advanced production technology, moderate operation scale, strong market competitiveness and sustainable ecological environment. Among them, the quality of agricultural products and food safety is the focus of future agricultural work. Fundamentally, it can be judged that the future "sustainable development" will become the basic requirements of China's agricultural development, "ecological agriculture" will gradually replace the "petrochemical agriculture", and become a new direction of future agricultural development.
2) Eco-agricultural technology for efficient use of resources. Three-dimensional planting technology. Three-dimensional planting technology refers to the use of advanced natural science and technology, and the full use of light, heat, water, gas and other natural resources, and to form aquaculture and processing industries according to the characteristics of growth and reproduction. Microorganisms of different plants, animals and land area units. The industrial process has established an efficient production model of multi-level configuration, multi-species symbiosis and multi-stage biological cycle. Such as rice (joint), rice fish (mud, yellow peony) co-production, rice frog production of rice paddy three-dimensional agricultural technology model; planting herbs in the vineyard or stocking the facilities of chickens, ducks, geese, sheep, etc. Poultry production model.
3) Pay more attention to the research, application and popularization of eco-agricultural technology. At present, the coverage of China's eco-agriculture has reached 30 provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions, but has not been promoted nationwide. The key reason lies in the research of ecological agriculture technology, the development of application and popularization ability lag behind. Due to the limited staffing of promotion agencies, limited operating capital, agricultural technology extension system cannot be combined with research institutions to form synergies. This is especially true for grassroots agricultural technology extension stations. Promotional functions are unlimited, based mainly on the sale of seeds, pesticides and other production materials. The role played a serious disadvantage. Therefore, there is an urgent need to establish an ecological agricultural technology innovation extension system. The establishment of technology innovation system based on enterprises, scientific research institutes and colleges and universities plays a major role in the development and popularization of eco-agricultural technology, and it is better to combine production practice demand with technology research and development.
4) Reduce the use of agro-chemicals in eco-agricultural technologies. Pest control technology can reduce the use of pesticides. The main methods include the establishment of three-dimensional agriculture, the use of resistant varieties, cultivation measures to enhance the resistance of crops to pests and diseases, and integrated management of pests. The application of transgenic insect-resistant cotton in China, the application of yellow-stick insect plate and insecticidal lamp belongs to this technique.
In recent years, the development of eco-agriculture has made gratifying achievements. By 2015, there will be more than 2000 pilot ecological agriculture projects nationwide, including more than 100 national eco-agricultural demonstration counties and more than 500 provincial eco-agriculture demonstration sites. Save agricultural resources, raise public environmental awareness, promote rural social progress and development. There are still some problems that need to be solved in the development of ecological agriculture. For example, agricultural workers don’t have enough ecological awareness, and the supporting agricultural technical service system is not perfect, and there is no necessary policy guarantee. Only by strengthening the training of science and technology personnel, establishing a complete ecosystem agricultural service system, perfecting relevant policies, increasing support to ecological agriculture, emphasizing the cultivation of leading enterprises and other organizations, promoting the industrialization of ecological agriculture, we can realize the healthy development of ecological agriculture.